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SOCL Test 1 - Flashcards

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Class:SOCL 3501 - SOCL OF DEVIANCE
Subject:Sociology
University:Louisiana State University
Term:Spring 2010
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Positivist View deviance is absolutely real; an observable object; determined behavior
Constructionist View deviance is a label, defined as such at a given time and place; a subjunctive experience; a coluntary experience
functionalism oldest theoretical perspective in sociology; built upon two emphasis; application of scientific method to objective social world; analogy between the individual organism and society; functions indicate interests; both interests of who put it in place as well as why; a functionalist examines the consequences an institution or practice has and, form it, speculates about the part it plays in the functioning and interests of a society or segments of that society; deviance is a requirement of society
Emile Durkheim crime is normal; has an unanticipated consequence of strengthening the normative consensus; reinforces social solidarity
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Mechanical Solidarity older societies; less diversification; strong sense of common experience; independent
Organic Solidarity current societies; diverse; dependent
Becker's Definition of Deviance deviance and the response of others; social construction
Becker's Social Construction Social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as outsiders. From this point of view, deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an "offender"
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Norms expectations of conduct in particular situations; they regulate human social relations and behavior
Proscriptive Norms tell people what they should not do ex) do not bring beer to mass
Prescriptive Norms tell people what they ought to do ex) study before a test
Cognitive Deviance Goffman; someones thoughts and beliefs, doesnt have to be actions ex) racism and sexism
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Common Misconceptions when Studying Deviance not a judgment of right and wrong; deviance has nothing to do with mental disorders or illness; deviance is not dependent on unusualness or statistical difference from the population at large; deviance is not defined by harm
The Relativity of Deviance Norms are not the same across place, time, person, or consequence
Structural Functionalism states that societies in a more or less unintended fashion have protected themselves over the years by 1) Prohibiting harmful activities 2) Encouraging beneficial ones; deviance can be either beneficial (functional) or harmful (dysfunctional)
Anomie Theory by Emile Durkheim; disturbance in the social order; creates a state of normlessness; deviance more likely in this state; a society with no set goals thus those within it may feel lost and deviate
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Mertonian Strain Theory there are obvious goals however the means to those goals are not spread equally, thus those without the means feel strained and are more likely to deviate
Goal-Means Gap in a society there are culturally defined goals however the means to get them are not available equally or even at all to everyone; this gap creates anomie and strain for certain individuals; those individuals are more likely to deviate
Conformity response to goal-means gap; most common; one accepts both the goals and the means
Innovation response to goal-means gap; one accepts the goals but not the means
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Ritualism response to the goal-means gap; one rejects or lowers the goals but accepts the means
Retreatism response to the goal-means gap; rejection of both goals and means
Rebellion response to the goal-means gap; overthrow both goals and means
Cohen's Status Frustration says anomie may cause frustration in some which will lead them to a higher rate of deviance
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Cloward and Ohlin there mus be opportunity for the individual to deviate
Differential Association Theory deviance is learned; it is learned through face to face interaction; this interaction is between people who are close; this process is heightened through priority and intensity; for one to deviate there must be an excess of deviant favorable definitions
Glaser Differential Identification one must personally identify with the definitions
Burgess and Akers: Differential Re-enforcement includes operant conditioning
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Hirschi's Control Theory four bonds and individual may have to society: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief
Hirschi and Gottdredson's Theory of Self Control rejects control theory; deviance is die to one's low self control
Deterrence Theory focuses on formal self control: police, prison, ect.; increase deterrence if: severe, certain, and swift
Rational Choice Theory Thomas Hobbes; Hedonism; pleasurable actions will be enacted and continued; those that are painful will be abandoned; instrumental crimes; expressive crimes
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Routine Activities to understand crime, it is necessary to consider the distributions of both criminals and victims and their routine activities across time and space; 3 factors: motivated offender, suitable target, lack of capable guardians
Labeling Theory calls on symbolic interactionist perspective; deviance is a collective action; meaning that people attach to this action is more important than the act itself
Stigma Goffman; discriminates between those identified by a reaction and those unidentified
Stigma: Discredited have been labeled; stigmatized; spoiled identity
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Stigma: Discreditable possesses undisclosed discrediting information about himself
Frank Tannenbaum Punishment has opposite effect that intended; punishment places label on those punished; this effects both the labeled and the labeler
Edwin Lemert two forms of deviance: Primary and Secondary
Audience determines what is deviant
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Consequences: Labeled negative consequences; secondary deviance
Consequences: Labeler enforces social norms and rules; establishes boundaries
Kai Erikson Societal deviance; situational deviance; difficulty of removing a stigma
Societal Deviance made up of widely condemned categories or classes of behavior
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Situational Deviance ignores any broad consensus and instead is focused only on concrete negative evaluations of behaviors and individuals in specific contexts
Conflict Theories consensus vs conflict; the labeling of deviants, particularly criminals, is the direct result of conflict relations; deviants are defined and controlled because it is in someones best interest to do so; the social control of deviance has little to do with the larger social good or the harmlessness of the norm violations; rather it serves to solidify the power of special interests
Conflict vs Functionalism: Functionalist view institutions (even destructive ones) as being involved in the harmony and having positive effects for society; creating structure through stratification
Conflict vs Functionalism: Conflict argues that the stratification created by institutions in society benefit some groups at the expense of other groups; due to resources being fixed
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Conflict groups struggle over dominance; those that are on top's definitions of right and wrong prevail and become law; this groups behavior is defined as normative; in a way rule making creates deviance; law is created by the state; the state has a monopoly on enforcing the law
Criminalization process by which criminal definitions are created; reflection of who has the power to create law; conflict theorists view rules, norms, and laws as growing out of a power struggle between and among interest groups, factions, and social classes; in the end the dominant group runs the show; the most powerful groups in society are those who were successful in having their own views of right and wrong accepted by society as a whole and formulated into criminal law; law is a means of forcing ones groups beliefs and way of life onto the rest of society; the behavior of the prior poor and powerless stands a higher likelyhood of being defined as criminal
Legal Reality Theory Two kinds of law; law on the books: law is fair; law in action: law is unfair and unjust
Organizational Imperative nature of any organization to compel its members to perform tasks that will maximize reward and minimize trouble for the organization
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Legal Realists see history of the legal system as the reason for its unfairness; has always been a tool to benefit the upper class
Social Reality Theory blames the capitalist system for the unjust practice of the legal system; four factors produce high crime in capitalist systems: 1) law enforcement defines criminal those behaviors that threaten its interests 2) the dominant class applies those laws to ensure the protection of their interest 3) member of the subordinate class are compelled by their unfavorable life conditions to engage in those actions that have been defined as criminal 4) the dominant class uses these criminal acts as the basis for constructing and diffusing the ideology of crime
Murder a crime and deviant
Killing not always a crime
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First Degree Murder involves premeditation
Second Degree Murder unplanned/"crime of passion"
Negligent Homicide cause death by recklessness
Felony Murder an offender may be charged with the first degree murder when that person's activity results in another persons death
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Basic Facts of Murder you know your killer; most murders involve fire arms; arguments turn into homicides
Who is more likely to murder most likely to be a member of the lower class; higher rate of African American murderers; murder is an overly male phenomenon; younger; victims mirror assailants
Class murder is concentrated heavily in the lower class; this holds true for all races; over representation of Minorities in the lower class
Regions and Communities higher homicide rates in the South; southern subculture of violence; higher murder rates in large urban areas
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Southern Subculture of Violence Pertains to southern white males; culture more favorable to violence; aims to defend one's honor
Gender men commit homicide more than women; women murder at similar rates to men when it concerns the killing of a significant other
Age follows age curve of crime; slightly older
Time increase in summer and winter holidays
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Place Men: morel likely to kill in public Women: more likely to kill in homes
Forms of homicide warm-blooded murder; victim precipitated homicide; arguments; adjunct to suicide
Mass Murder killing three or more people at about the same time and place
Mass Murder: Typology disciple mass killing; family annihilator; disgruntled employee; ideological mass killer; set and run; disgruntled citizen; psychotic mass killer
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Serial Killers 2 distinguished factors from typical homicide: 1) nature of victim/offender relationship 2) context of homicide; FBI defines as a person who commits 3 or more murders in a period of more than 30 days apart with a cooling off period between; victims seen as symbolic; motive is neither intrumentive or expressive; causation is unclear; exhibit homicidal triad
Homicidal Triad bed wetting past normal age; obsession with fire; torturing of animals at a young age
Typology of Serial Killers Visionary killers; mission oriented; Hedonistic killers/thrill seeker; power oriented; recognitions seeker; material gain seeker
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Positivist Viewdeviance is absolutely real; an observable object; determined behavior
 Constructionist Viewdeviance is a label, defined as such at a given time and place; a subjunctive experience; a coluntary experience
 functionalismoldest theoretical perspective in sociology; built upon two emphasis; application of scientific method to objective social world; analogy between the individual organism and society; functions indicate interests; both interests of who put it in place as well as why; a functionalist examines the consequences an institution or practice has and, form it, speculates about the part it plays in the functioning and interests of a society or segments of that society; deviance is a requirement of society
 Emile Durkheimcrime is normal; has an unanticipated consequence of strengthening the normative consensus; reinforces social solidarity
 Mechanical Solidarityolder societies; less diversification; strong sense of common experience; independent
 Organic Solidaritycurrent societies; diverse; dependent
 Becker's Definition of Deviancedeviance and the response of others; social construction
 Becker's Social ConstructionSocial groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as outsiders. From this point of view, deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an "offender"
 Normsexpectations of conduct in particular situations; they regulate human social relations and behavior
 Proscriptive Normstell people what they should not do
ex) do not bring beer to mass
 Prescriptive Normstell people what they ought to do
ex) study before a test
 Cognitive DevianceGoffman; someones thoughts and beliefs, doesnt have to be actions
ex) racism and sexism
 Common Misconceptions when Studying Deviancenot a judgment of right and wrong; deviance has nothing to do with mental disorders or illness; deviance is not dependent on unusualness or statistical difference from the population at large; deviance is not defined by harm
 The Relativity of DevianceNorms are not the same across place, time, person, or consequence
 Structural Functionalismstates that societies in a more or less unintended fashion have protected themselves over the years by 1) Prohibiting harmful activities 2) Encouraging beneficial ones; deviance can be either beneficial (functional) or harmful (dysfunctional)
 AnomieTheory by Emile Durkheim; disturbance in the social order; creates a state of normlessness; deviance more likely in this state; a society with no set goals thus those within it may feel lost and deviate
 Mertonian Strain Theorythere are obvious goals however the means to those goals are not spread equally, thus those without the means feel strained and are more likely to deviate
 Goal-Means Gapin a society there are culturally defined goals however the means to get them are not available equally or even at all to everyone; this gap creates anomie and strain for certain individuals; those individuals are more likely to deviate
 Conformityresponse to goal-means gap; most common; one accepts both the goals and the means
 Innovationresponse to goal-means gap; one accepts the goals but not the means
 Ritualismresponse to the goal-means gap; one rejects or lowers the goals but accepts the means
 Retreatismresponse to the goal-means gap; rejection of both goals and means
 Rebellionresponse to the goal-means gap; overthrow both goals and means
 Cohen's Status Frustrationsays anomie may cause frustration in some which will lead them to a higher rate of deviance
 Cloward and Ohlinthere mus be opportunity for the individual to deviate
 Differential Association Theorydeviance is learned; it is learned through face to face interaction; this interaction is between people who are close; this process is heightened through priority and intensity; for one to deviate there must be an excess of deviant favorable definitions
 Glaser Differential Identificationone must personally identify with the definitions
 Burgess and Akers: Differential Re-enforcementincludes operant conditioning
 Hirschi's Control Theoryfour bonds and individual may have to society: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief
 Hirschi and Gottdredson's Theory of Self Controlrejects control theory; deviance is die to one's low self control
 Deterrence Theoryfocuses on formal self control: police, prison, ect.; increase deterrence if: severe, certain, and swift
 Rational Choice TheoryThomas Hobbes; Hedonism; pleasurable actions will be enacted and continued; those that are painful will be abandoned; instrumental crimes; expressive crimes
 Routine Activitiesto understand crime, it is necessary to consider the distributions of both criminals and victims and their routine activities across time and space; 3 factors: motivated offender, suitable target, lack of capable guardians
 Labeling Theorycalls on symbolic interactionist perspective; deviance is a collective action; meaning that people attach to this action is more important than the act itself
 StigmaGoffman; discriminates between those identified by a reaction and those unidentified
 Stigma: Discreditedhave been labeled; stigmatized; spoiled identity
 Stigma: Discreditablepossesses undisclosed discrediting information about himself
 Frank TannenbaumPunishment has opposite effect that intended; punishment places label on those punished; this effects both the labeled and the labeler
 Edwin Lemerttwo forms of deviance: Primary and Secondary
 Audiencedetermines what is deviant
 Consequences: Labelednegative consequences; secondary deviance
 Consequences: Labelerenforces social norms and rules; establishes boundaries
 Kai EriksonSocietal deviance; situational deviance; difficulty of removing a stigma
 Societal Deviancemade up of widely condemned categories or classes of behavior
 Situational Devianceignores any broad consensus and instead is focused only on concrete negative evaluations of behaviors and individuals in specific contexts
 Conflict Theoriesconsensus vs conflict; the labeling of deviants, particularly criminals, is the direct result of conflict relations; deviants are defined and controlled because it is in someones best interest to do so; the social control of deviance has little to do with the larger social good or the harmlessness of the norm violations; rather it serves to solidify the power of special interests
 Conflict vs Functionalism: Functionalistview institutions (even destructive ones) as being involved in the harmony and having positive effects for society; creating structure through stratification
 Conflict vs Functionalism: Conflictargues that the stratification created by institutions in society benefit some groups at the expense of other groups; due to resources being fixed
 Conflictgroups struggle over dominance; those that are on top's definitions of right and wrong prevail and become law; this groups behavior is defined as normative; in a way rule making creates deviance; law is created by the state; the state has a monopoly on enforcing the law
 Criminalizationprocess by which criminal definitions are created; reflection of who has the power to create law; conflict theorists view rules, norms, and laws as growing out of a power struggle between and among interest groups, factions, and social classes; in the end the dominant group runs the show; the most powerful groups in society are those who were successful in having their own views of right and wrong accepted by society as a whole and formulated into criminal law; law is a means of forcing ones groups beliefs and way of life onto the rest of society; the behavior of the prior poor and powerless stands a higher likelyhood of being defined as criminal
 Legal Reality TheoryTwo kinds of law; law on the books: law is fair; law in action: law is unfair and unjust
 Organizational Imperativenature of any organization to compel its members to perform tasks that will maximize reward and minimize trouble for the organization
 Legal Realistssee history of the legal system as the reason for its unfairness; has always been a tool to benefit the upper class
 Social Reality Theoryblames the capitalist system for the unjust practice of the legal system; four factors produce high crime in capitalist systems: 1) law enforcement defines criminal those behaviors that threaten its interests 2) the dominant class applies those laws to ensure the protection of their interest 3) member of the subordinate class are compelled by their unfavorable life conditions to engage in those actions that have been defined as criminal 4) the dominant class uses these criminal acts as the basis for constructing and diffusing the ideology of crime
 Murdera crime and deviant
 Killingnot always a crime
 First Degree Murderinvolves premeditation
 Second Degree Murderunplanned/"crime of passion"
 Negligent Homicidecause death by recklessness
 Felony Murderan offender may be charged with the first degree murder when that person's activity results in another persons death
 Basic Facts of Murderyou know your killer; most murders involve fire arms; arguments turn into homicides
 Who is more likely to murdermost likely to be a member of the lower class; higher rate of African American murderers; murder is an overly male phenomenon; younger; victims mirror assailants
 Classmurder is concentrated heavily in the lower class; this holds true for all races; over representation of Minorities in the lower class
 Regions and Communitieshigher homicide rates in the South; southern subculture of violence; higher murder rates in large urban areas
 Southern Subculture of ViolencePertains to southern white males; culture more favorable to violence; aims to defend one's honor
 Gendermen commit homicide more than women; women murder at similar rates to men when it concerns the killing of a significant other
 Agefollows age curve of crime; slightly older
 Timeincrease in summer and winter holidays
 PlaceMen: morel likely to kill in public
Women: more likely to kill in homes
 Forms of homicidewarm-blooded murder; victim precipitated homicide; arguments; adjunct to suicide
 Mass Murderkilling three or more people at about the same time and place
 Mass Murder: Typologydisciple mass killing; family annihilator; disgruntled employee; ideological mass killer; set and run; disgruntled citizen; psychotic mass killer
 Serial Killers2 distinguished factors from typical homicide: 1) nature of victim/offender relationship 2) context of homicide; FBI defines as a person who commits 3 or more murders in a period of more than 30 days apart with a cooling off period between; victims seen as symbolic; motive is neither intrumentive or expressive; causation is unclear; exhibit homicidal triad
 Homicidal Triadbed wetting past normal age; obsession with fire; torturing of animals at a young age
 Typology of Serial KillersVisionary killers; mission oriented; Hedonistic killers/thrill seeker; power oriented; recognitions seeker; material gain seeker
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