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Exam 2 - Flashcards

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Class:VPHY 3100 - ELEMENTS OF PHYSIOL
Subject:Physiology and Pharmacology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Spring 2013
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Differences between Autonomic & Somatic Motor Systems -Somatic effects skeletal muscles, Auto effects smooth muscle, cardiac & glands
-only auto have cell bodies in ganglia 
-1 neuron from CNS to effector in somatic, auto has 2 
-both are excitatory but auto can be inhibitory
-somatic are thick and myelinated, auto are thin and nonmyelinated
Parasympathetic vs. Sympathetic Basic Differences -Parasympathetic: housekeeping,pregang originate in midbrain, medulla, pons, and sacral levels of the spinal chord

-Sympathetic: fight or flight, chain of ganglia, activated as an entire unit, direct innervation of the adrenal medulla  
   
What ganglia do both para and sym systems have? pre and post ganglionic neurons
paravertebral ganglia -line of ganglia on the trunk, sympathetic 
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splanchnic nerves -preganglionic fibers that pass through the sympathetic chain, contribute to the innervation of the viscera
collateral[prevertebral] ganglia -ganglia which lie between the sympathetic chain and the organ of supply.
Where do preganglionic axons split from the spinal nerves? white rami 
terminal ganglia pre and postganglionic synapse close to target organ [parasym]
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What is the primary route of parasympathetic innervation? Vagus nerves
Preganglionic fibers of both systems are what? Cholinergic [NT acetylcholine] nicotinic -> generates EPSP
How do the postganglionic fibers act in both systems? In the parasym mostly cholinergic, but in sym mostly adrenergic [epi/norepi]
Excitatory sympathetic receptors beta-1 [increased cardiac] and alpha-1 [vasoconstriction at viscera]
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Inhibatory sympthetic receptor beta-2 [relaxes bronchioles & vasodialates viscera] 
makes smooth muscles relax 
What type of receptor are adrenergic and muscarinic? G-protein 
What happens during Vagal innervation of the heart? cholinergic innervation activates muscarinic receptors that open K channels which hyperpolarizes the muscle cells, slowing the heart 
Which part of the brain is the control center for the ANS? Hypothalmus 
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The four types of basic information from the sensory system 1. Modality
2, Intensity
3. Time
4. Location
What are most sensory cells? Specialized epithelial cells that synapse on adjacent sensory neurons, which are the other type of sensory cells 
Are phasic or tonic receptors faster? What are their patterns? Phasic are faster, they respond with a burst of APs at the beginning of the stimulus and a few at withdrawal
Tonic receptors are slower and have evenly spaced APs
What do action potential frequencies incode? intensity of stimuli 
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What is a receptive field? how a sensory neuron locates the site of a stimulus 
Somatosensory Perception detects pain, itch, touch, temperature, and proprioception

two types: cutaneous (skin) [pain, touch, temp] and proprioception [muscle spindles] 
Where does information from the right visual field go? The left cerebral hemi 

opposite goes for left visual field 
What happens to eye muscles when you brighten or decrease light? Brighter light- circular muscle contraction stimulated by muscarinic receptors [parasym]

Less light than normal causes radial contraction stimulated by alpha-1 adrenergic receptors [sym] 
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How would you want eyedrops to work in order to dilate eyes?

Dilation eyedrops would be antagonistic to muscarinic and agonistic of alpha receptors 

What are the two types of photoreceptors? Rods- more light sensitivity, dim light vision, Rhodopsin receptors

Cones- more colorful and more acuity, Photopsin receptors 
How does information flow in the retina? photoreceptors --> bipolar cells --> ganglion
What kind of receptors are Photopsin and Rhodopsin? G-protein receptors that are activated by incoming light rays 
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What do Horizontal and Amacrine cells do? They are interneurons that relay info btwn retina information pathway
How does "dark/light current" work? In the dark cGMP binds to the cation channel causing depolarization and release of inhibitory NT

In the light cGMP dissociate and the cell is hyperpolarized and reaches resting potential 
What is true of both rods and cones? Photopigment is retinal
What are the two states of Rhodopsin 11-cis-retinal and all-trans-retinal 

when there is light energy 11-cis-retial disassociates from opsin and goes to the more stable all-trans-retinal which changes ionic permeability and sends signals to provide vision 

occurs in rods and cones 
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What does phosphodiesterase do in the retina? when activated it converts cGMP to GMP and closes the ion channel hyperpolerizing the cell stopping the dark current 
Where is the sharpest vision? The Fovea, because of its concentration of cones
Do rods or cones converge? Rods, multiple feed into one bipolar cells, causing larger ganglion, cones have no convergence 
What are "on" and "off'" ganglion cells? They detect contrast, "on-center" GCs are stimulated by illumination near the center and darkness in the surround, "off-center" GCs are stimulated by darkness in the center and illumination of the surround 
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How do hair cells work?

Electrochemical gradient for K comes in, causing depolarization and release of NT – bending toward kinocilium, high AP firing 

What kind of hormones are insulin and glucagon? They are secreted by the pancreas, synthesized from peptides and proteins, and are hydrophilic 

insulin is anabolic and secreted by beta cells and glucagon is catabolic and secreted by alpha cells
How do insulin receptors work? As an RTK the activator phosphorylates itself because it is a tyrosine kinase. 

Process:
Receptor binds to activation site and dimerizes occurs, phosphorylation occurs and tyrosine kinase is active, the signal molecule is then phosphorylated and glucose is taken up and anabolic reactions proceed
What do hepatic GLUT2 transporters do? These uniporters move glucose into liver cells when glucose concentration is high and out of liver cells when concentration is low 
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Where does GLUT4 insulin responsive recruitment occur? skeletal & cardiac muscle as well as adipose tissue  [when not in the liver they are sent to the plasma membrane]
What are the major effects of insulin and glucagon in the liver? Insulin decreases gluconeogenesis and increases glycogon synthesis

glucagon increases glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis




*excersize increases glucagon concentration & decreases insulin, probably b/c of lowered glucose levels 
What are the two lobes of the pituitary gland? Anterior Lobe- hormonal regulation by hypothalmus, many hormones released


Posterior Lobe- neural extension of the hypo, produces ADH and oxytocin
What do oxytocin and ADH do? ADH- water absorption of the kidneys
oxytocin- mammalian lactation & uterine contraction 

they are transported down the hypothalmo-hyposeal tract 
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What does the hypothalmo-hyposeal portal do? allows the hypothalmus to regulate the anterior petuitary w/hormones
What does the adrenal cortex secrete? corticosteroids


What are the metabolic effects of catecholamines
nIncrease glycogenolysis in the liver
nIncrease lipolysis in the adipose tissue

beta-adrenergic receptors

b-receptor --> G-protein

--> adenylyl cyclase -->

cAMPi --> protein kinase A --> other kinases --> downstream effects

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alpha-adrenergic receptor

a-receptor --> G-protein

--> PLC activates IP3 --> channel influx of Ca2+i into cytosol--> Ca/calmodulin --> kinases --> downstream effects

3 types of corticosteroids 1. Mineralo corticoids --> regulation of sodium & potassium 
ex aldesterone, increases blood volume & pressure, balances electrolytes
2.Glucocorticoids --> regulation of glucose & other catabolic effects 
helps with immune suppression and inhibition of inflammation
 ex Cortisol 
3.Sex steroids --> weak androgens that supplement gonadal hormones
ex 
Characteristics of steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol, hydrophobic ring structure, can also activate non-genomic responses in target tissues, form homo dimers
What are T3 and T4 characterisitcs? Tyrosine, they both contain iodine, and cannot be formed w/o it. T4 has four iodines and T3 has three

hydrophobic, movement stimulated by TSH
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Thyroid negative feedback hypothalamus -> TRH -> anterior pituitary -> TSH -> Thyroid to either trophic [growth of hormone] and hormonal effect [T4 production, which inhibits TRH responsiveness] 
Thyroid Diseases Hypothyroid- low T4, no negative feedback, elavated TSH, trophic effects cause growth [goiter] caused by iodine insufficiency 

Hyperthyroid- high T4, but antibodies inhibit negative feedback by activating TSH receptor [antagonist] causing goiter  
Muscle Tissue Organization sarcomere- smallest contractile unit
myofibril- collection of sarcomeres 
myofiber/muscle fiber- muscle cell 
faciculus- bundle of muscle fibers 
muscle-bundle of faciculi 
Muscle Cell Parts sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca storage), multi nucleated 
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Motor Unit a single motor neuron and the cells in innervates, typically 100-1000, inervates same type of cell 
Neuromuscular Junction synapse between the nerve terminal and the motor end plate [muscle cell] 

nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
excitation/contraction coupling electrical signaling to contraction of sarcomeres 

Initial EPSP from nicotinic opens sodium channels, that makes its way to the T tubule, dihydropyramine receptors assosicated with aranadine, when AP comes down activates the DHP receptors to pull open associated ryanodine receptors {both Ca receptors} rush into intracellular space, release of Calcium triggers contraction of sarcomeres 

Trasverse/T-Tubules continous w/sarcolemma, propogates AP in muscle cell 
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Sliding Model A band will not change
Z discs move closer 
I and H bands get shorter 
What are the filaments in a sarcomere called? Thin-actin, thick-myosin 
Myosin heads only active with calcium, ATP binding domain, uses power stroke to move filaments, resting fiber no calcium attached, cocked and flexed positions

cross bridge binds to actin-> release of P-> power stroke, head is bound to thin filament & release of ADP-> new ATP binds and head is released -> ATP hydrolized and bridge returns to normal

multiple power strokes=contraction
Cross Bridge

Tropomyosin sits in active site, increased calcium bind to troponin to move tropyosin



 Ca interacts with troponin --> tropomyosin moves --> myosin associates with actin
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Twitches and Tetanus Twitches are the smallest quanta of contractions 
increase APs make twitches, summations &  unfused tetanus 
summations and unfused tetanus are succesive twitches in which cross bridges are moderately active
a fused tetanus is not physiologically able to happen, myosin would be at maximal use 
Asynchronous Activation fluid movement of multiple motor units 

the more units involved or recruited the more strength

Contraction Types Concentric-shortening and working
Isometric-stops shortening, work is equal
Eccentric working and stretching
How do muscles make ATP? Aerobic(oxidative phosphorylation)-produces most ATP
pulled on from light activity

Anaerobic: glycogenolysis, fermentation, phosphocreatine
pulled on from long strenous activity
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Causes of Muscle Fatige depletion of glycogen stores, lactic acid accumulation, E/C coupling[decreased Ca from SR]
Types of Motor Unites Slow [I] red fibers, lots of O2, fatigue resistant, edurance muscles, small diameter less myosin, less forceful contractions

Fast Fatigue-Resistant[II-A] fast oxidative red fibers, medium diameter, more myosin

Fast Fatiguable [II-X] white fibers, glycotic, tap into phosphocreatin pools, large and forceful, low oxidative capacity, large diameter and lots of myosin, sprinting

Muscle-Spindle Aparatus in intrafusal [non moving, beta motoneuron controled] muscles, muscle stretch stimulates spindle which stimulates sensory neurons, increasing length increases APs
extrafusal muscles are normal ones [alpha motoneuron control]

Nuclear bag & chain fibers both respond to stretch, bag more sensitive to onset of stretch, chain more tonic, as stretch continues AP firing, more intense stretching generates more APs from both fibers

Which receptors are metabotropic? alpha, beta, and muscarinic 

[promote gly] 
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Both pain and touch stimuli are conveyed to the parietal cortex via what? the lateral spinothalmic tract 
Where are light rays bent at when coming in the eye? cornea 
How does the hypothalmus regulate both the anterior and posterior pituitary glands? endocrine function
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causes growth of adrenal cortex 
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Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) & luteinizing hormone (LH), gonadotrophic hormone, sex steroid secretion
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH] promotes production & secretion of T3 & T4
Which pituitary gland controls the adrenal cortex? anterior [produces ACTH, promoting growth] 
Where are inactive hormones at? Thyroid-nucleus
Steroid-cytosol 
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Which hormones are hydrophobic? Thyroid and Steroid 

hydropillic hormones include epi/norepi and insulin & glycagon 
Where are Ryanodine(RyR) and Dihydropyridine(DHP) receptors located? sarcoplasmic reticulum for Ry and transverse tubules for DHP
Where does Ca bind during contraction? troponin 
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 Differences between Autonomic & Somatic Motor Systems-Somatic effects skeletal muscles, Auto effects smooth muscle, cardiac & glands
-only auto have cell bodies in ganglia 
-1 neuron from CNS to effector in somatic, auto has 2 
-both are excitatory but auto can be inhibitory
-somatic are thick and myelinated, auto are thin and nonmyelinated
 Parasympathetic vs. Sympathetic Basic Differences-Parasympathetic: housekeeping,pregang originate in midbrain, medulla, pons, and sacral levels of the spinal chord

-Sympathetic: fight or flight, chain of ganglia, activated as an entire unit, direct innervation of the adrenal medulla  
   
 What ganglia do both para and sym systems have?pre and post ganglionic neurons
 paravertebral ganglia-line of ganglia on the trunk, sympathetic 
 splanchnic nerves-preganglionic fibers that pass through the sympathetic chain, contribute to the innervation of the viscera
 collateral[prevertebral] ganglia-ganglia which lie between the sympathetic chain and the organ of supply.
 Where do preganglionic axons split from the spinal nerves?white rami 
 terminal gangliapre and postganglionic synapse close to target organ [parasym]
 What is the primary route of parasympathetic innervation?Vagus nerves
 Preganglionic fibers of both systems are what?Cholinergic [NT acetylcholine] nicotinic -> generates EPSP
 How do the postganglionic fibers act in both systems?In the parasym mostly cholinergic, but in sym mostly adrenergic [epi/norepi]
 Excitatory sympathetic receptorsbeta-1 [increased cardiac] and alpha-1 [vasoconstriction at viscera]
 Inhibatory sympthetic receptorbeta-2 [relaxes bronchioles & vasodialates viscera] 
makes smooth muscles relax 
 What type of receptor are adrenergic and muscarinic?G-protein 
 What happens during Vagal innervation of the heart?cholinergic innervation activates muscarinic receptors that open K channels which hyperpolarizes the muscle cells, slowing the heart 
 Which part of the brain is the control center for the ANS?Hypothalmus 
 The four types of basic information from the sensory system1. Modality
2, Intensity
3. Time
4. Location
 What are most sensory cells?Specialized epithelial cells that synapse on adjacent sensory neurons, which are the other type of sensory cells 
 Are phasic or tonic receptors faster? What are their patterns?Phasic are faster, they respond with a burst of APs at the beginning of the stimulus and a few at withdrawal
Tonic receptors are slower and have evenly spaced APs
 What do action potential frequencies incode?intensity of stimuli 
 What is a receptive field?how a sensory neuron locates the site of a stimulus 
 Somatosensory Perceptiondetects pain, itch, touch, temperature, and proprioception

two types: cutaneous (skin) [pain, touch, temp] and proprioception [muscle spindles] 
 Where does information from the right visual field go?The left cerebral hemi 

opposite goes for left visual field 
 What happens to eye muscles when you brighten or decrease light?Brighter light- circular muscle contraction stimulated by muscarinic receptors [parasym]

Less light than normal causes radial contraction stimulated by alpha-1 adrenergic receptors [sym] 
 How would you want eyedrops to work in order to dilate eyes?

Dilation eyedrops would be antagonistic to muscarinic and agonistic of alpha receptors 

 What are the two types of photoreceptors?Rods- more light sensitivity, dim light vision, Rhodopsin receptors

Cones- more colorful and more acuity, Photopsin receptors 
 How does information flow in the retina?photoreceptors --> bipolar cells --> ganglion
 What kind of receptors are Photopsin and Rhodopsin?G-protein receptors that are activated by incoming light rays 
 What do Horizontal and Amacrine cells do?They are interneurons that relay info btwn retina information pathway
 How does "dark/light current" work?In the dark cGMP binds to the cation channel causing depolarization and release of inhibitory NT

In the light cGMP dissociate and the cell is hyperpolarized and reaches resting potential 
 What is true of both rods and cones?Photopigment is retinal
 What are the two states of Rhodopsin11-cis-retinal and all-trans-retinal 

when there is light energy 11-cis-retial disassociates from opsin and goes to the more stable all-trans-retinal which changes ionic permeability and sends signals to provide vision 

occurs in rods and cones 
 What does phosphodiesterase do in the retina?when activated it converts cGMP to GMP and closes the ion channel hyperpolerizing the cell stopping the dark current 
 Where is the sharpest vision?The Fovea, because of its concentration of cones
 Do rods or cones converge?Rods, multiple feed into one bipolar cells, causing larger ganglion, cones have no convergence 
 What are "on" and "off'" ganglion cells?They detect contrast, "on-center" GCs are stimulated by illumination near the center and darkness in the surround, "off-center" GCs are stimulated by darkness in the center and illumination of the surround 
 How do hair cells work?

Electrochemical gradient for K comes in, causing depolarization and release of NT – bending toward kinocilium, high AP firing 

 What kind of hormones are insulin and glucagon?They are secreted by the pancreas, synthesized from peptides and proteins, and are hydrophilic 

insulin is anabolic and secreted by beta cells and glucagon is catabolic and secreted by alpha cells
 How do insulin receptors work?As an RTK the activator phosphorylates itself because it is a tyrosine kinase. 

Process:
Receptor binds to activation site and dimerizes occurs, phosphorylation occurs and tyrosine kinase is active, the signal molecule is then phosphorylated and glucose is taken up and anabolic reactions proceed
 What do hepatic GLUT2 transporters do?These uniporters move glucose into liver cells when glucose concentration is high and out of liver cells when concentration is low 
 Where does GLUT4 insulin responsive recruitment occur?skeletal & cardiac muscle as well as adipose tissue  [when not in the liver they are sent to the plasma membrane]
 What are the major effects of insulin and glucagon in the liver?Insulin decreases gluconeogenesis and increases glycogon synthesis

glucagon increases glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis




*excersize increases glucagon concentration & decreases insulin, probably b/c of lowered glucose levels 
 What are the two lobes of the pituitary gland?Anterior Lobe- hormonal regulation by hypothalmus, many hormones released


Posterior Lobe- neural extension of the hypo, produces ADH and oxytocin
 What do oxytocin and ADH do?ADH- water absorption of the kidneys
oxytocin- mammalian lactation & uterine contraction 

they are transported down the hypothalmo-hyposeal tract 
 What does the hypothalmo-hyposeal portal do?allows the hypothalmus to regulate the anterior petuitary w/hormones
 What does the adrenal cortex secrete?corticosteroids


 What are the metabolic effects of catecholamines
nIncrease glycogenolysis in the liver
nIncrease lipolysis in the adipose tissue

 beta-adrenergic receptors

b-receptor --> G-protein

--> adenylyl cyclase -->

cAMPi --> protein kinase A --> other kinases --> downstream effects

 alpha-adrenergic receptor

a-receptor --> G-protein

--> PLC activates IP3 --> channel influx of Ca2+i into cytosol--> Ca/calmodulin --> kinases --> downstream effects

 3 types of corticosteroids1. Mineralo corticoids --> regulation of sodium & potassium 
ex aldesterone, increases blood volume & pressure, balances electrolytes
2.Glucocorticoids --> regulation of glucose & other catabolic effects 
helps with immune suppression and inhibition of inflammation
 ex Cortisol 
3.Sex steroids --> weak androgens that supplement gonadal hormones
ex 
 Characteristics of steroid hormonessynthesized from cholesterol, hydrophobic ring structure, can also activate non-genomic responses in target tissues, form homo dimers
 What are T3 and T4 characterisitcs?Tyrosine, they both contain iodine, and cannot be formed w/o it. T4 has four iodines and T3 has three

hydrophobic, movement stimulated by TSH
 Thyroid negative feedbackhypothalamus -> TRH -> anterior pituitary -> TSH -> Thyroid to either trophic [growth of hormone] and hormonal effect [T4 production, which inhibits TRH responsiveness] 
 Thyroid DiseasesHypothyroid- low T4, no negative feedback, elavated TSH, trophic effects cause growth [goiter] caused by iodine insufficiency 

Hyperthyroid- high T4, but antibodies inhibit negative feedback by activating TSH receptor [antagonist] causing goiter  
 Muscle Tissue Organizationsarcomere- smallest contractile unit
myofibril- collection of sarcomeres 
myofiber/muscle fiber- muscle cell 
faciculus- bundle of muscle fibers 
muscle-bundle of faciculi 
 Muscle Cell Partssarcolemma, sarcoplasm, sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca storage), multi nucleated 
 Motor Unita single motor neuron and the cells in innervates, typically 100-1000, inervates same type of cell 
 Neuromuscular Junctionsynapse between the nerve terminal and the motor end plate [muscle cell] 

nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
 excitation/contraction couplingelectrical signaling to contraction of sarcomeres 

Initial EPSP from nicotinic opens sodium channels, that makes its way to the T tubule, dihydropyramine receptors assosicated with aranadine, when AP comes down activates the DHP receptors to pull open associated ryanodine receptors {both Ca receptors} rush into intracellular space, release of Calcium triggers contraction of sarcomeres 

 Trasverse/T-Tubulescontinous w/sarcolemma, propogates AP in muscle cell 
 Sliding ModelA band will not change
Z discs move closer 
I and H bands get shorter 
 What are the filaments in a sarcomere called?Thin-actin, thick-myosin 
 Myosin headsonly active with calcium, ATP binding domain, uses power stroke to move filaments, resting fiber no calcium attached, cocked and flexed positions

cross bridge binds to actin-> release of P-> power stroke, head is bound to thin filament & release of ADP-> new ATP binds and head is released -> ATP hydrolized and bridge returns to normal

multiple power strokes=contraction
 Cross Bridge

Tropomyosin sits in active site, increased calcium bind to troponin to move tropyosin



 Ca interacts with troponin --> tropomyosin moves --> myosin associates with actin
 Twitches and TetanusTwitches are the smallest quanta of contractions 
increase APs make twitches, summations &  unfused tetanus 
summations and unfused tetanus are succesive twitches in which cross bridges are moderately active
a fused tetanus is not physiologically able to happen, myosin would be at maximal use 
 Asynchronous Activationfluid movement of multiple motor units 

the more units involved or recruited the more strength

 Contraction TypesConcentric-shortening and working
Isometric-stops shortening, work is equal
Eccentric working and stretching
 How do muscles make ATP?Aerobic(oxidative phosphorylation)-produces most ATP
pulled on from light activity

Anaerobic: glycogenolysis, fermentation, phosphocreatine
pulled on from long strenous activity
 Causes of Muscle Fatigedepletion of glycogen stores, lactic acid accumulation, E/C coupling[decreased Ca from SR]
 Types of Motor UnitesSlow [I] red fibers, lots of O2, fatigue resistant, edurance muscles, small diameter less myosin, less forceful contractions

Fast Fatigue-Resistant[II-A] fast oxidative red fibers, medium diameter, more myosin

Fast Fatiguable [II-X] white fibers, glycotic, tap into phosphocreatin pools, large and forceful, low oxidative capacity, large diameter and lots of myosin, sprinting

 Muscle-Spindle Aparatusin intrafusal [non moving, beta motoneuron controled] muscles, muscle stretch stimulates spindle which stimulates sensory neurons, increasing length increases APs
extrafusal muscles are normal ones [alpha motoneuron control]

Nuclear bag & chain fibers both respond to stretch, bag more sensitive to onset of stretch, chain more tonic, as stretch continues AP firing, more intense stretching generates more APs from both fibers

 Which receptors are metabotropic?alpha, beta, and muscarinic 

[promote gly] 
 Both pain and touch stimuli are conveyed to the parietal cortex via what?the lateral spinothalmic tract 
 Where are light rays bent at when coming in the eye?cornea 
 How does the hypothalmus regulate both the anterior and posterior pituitary glands?endocrine function
 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)causes growth of adrenal cortex 
 Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) & luteinizing hormone (LH),gonadotrophic hormone, sex steroid secretion
 Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH]promotes production & secretion of T3 & T4
 Which pituitary gland controls the adrenal cortex?anterior [produces ACTH, promoting growth] 
 Where are inactive hormones at?Thyroid-nucleus
Steroid-cytosol 
 Which hormones are hydrophobic?Thyroid and Steroid 

hydropillic hormones include epi/norepi and insulin & glycagon 
 Where are Ryanodine(RyR) and Dihydropyridine(DHP) receptors located?sarcoplasmic reticulum for Ry and transverse tubules for DHP
 Where does Ca bind during contraction?troponin 
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