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Class:ZOO 4733 - Survey of Regional Anatomy
Subject:Zoology
University:Florida International University
Term:Spring 2011
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Regional Anatomy Based on the organization of the body into parts: head, neck, trunk (further subdivided into thorax, abdomen, pelvis/perineum, back) and paired upper and lower limbs
Systemic Anatomy approach to anatomical study organized by organ systems that work together to carry out complex functions Systems: Integumentary, skeletal, articular, muscular, nervous, circulatory (cardiovascular & lymphoid), digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, endocrine
Integumentary System (Dermatology) Skin and its appendages (hair and nails). Sensory organ. Forms protective covering for the body. WIKI: The integumentary system (From Latin integumentum, from integere 'to cover'; from in- + tegere 'to cover') is the organ system that protects the body from damage, comprising the skin and its appendages (including hair, scales, feathers, and nails).
Skeletal System (Osteology; Orthopedics) Bones and cartilage. Provides support for the body and protects vital organs. Muscular system acts on the skeletal system to produce movements. WIKI: The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage.
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Articular System (Arthology) Joints and associated ligaments. Connects the bony parts of the skeletal system and provides the sites at which movement occurs.
Muscular System (Myology) muscles that (contract) to move or position parts of the body. WIKI: The muscular system is the anatomical system of a species that allows it to move.
Nervous System (Neurology) central nervous system (CNS-brain and spinal cord) & peripheral nervous system (PNS- nerves and ganglia together w/ the motor and sensory organs). Controls and coordinates the functions of the organ systems WIKI: The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body.
Circulatory System (Angiology) cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. Function in parallel to distribute fluids w/i th body CARDIOVASCULAR: (Cardiology) heart and blood vessels. Propel and conduct blood through the body LYMPHOID: Network of lymphatic vessels that withdraws excess tissue fluid (lymph) from the body's intracellular fluid compartment, filters it thru the lymph nodes and returns it back to bloodstream WIKI: The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids, electrolytes and lymph), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc.
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Digestive System (Alimentary System) (Gastroenterology) organs and glands associated with the ingestion, mastication, deglutition (swallowing), digestion, and absorption of food and the elimination of solid wastes after the nutrients have been absorbed
Respiratory System (Pulmonology) air passages and lungs that supply oxygen and eliminate CO WIKI: In humans and other animals, for example, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles.
Urinary System (Urology) kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Filter blood and subsequently produce, transport, store, and intermittently excrete liquid waste WIKI: The urinary system (also called the excretory system) is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine.
Reproductive System (Females: Obstetrics & Gynecology; Males: Andrology) gonads (ovaries & testes) that produce oocytes (eggs) and sperms and the other genital organs concerned with reproduction WIKI: The reproductive system or genital system is a system of organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of reproduction.
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Endocrine System (Endocrinology) discrete ductless glands (thyroid gland) as well as cells of the intestine and blood vessel walls and specialized nerve endings that secrete hormones (distributed by the cardiovascular sys to reach receptor organs in all parts of the body). Influence metabolism and coordinate and regulate other processes.
Clinical (Applied) Anatomy Emphasizes aspects of the structure and function of the body important in the practice of medicine, dentistry, and the allied health sciences. Encompasses both the regional and the systemic approaches to studying anatomy and stresses clinical application
Eponyms Names of structures derived from the names of people WIKI :An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, after which a particular place, tribe, era, discovery, or other item is named or thought to be named.
Median (Median Sagittal) Plane vertical plane passing longitudinally thru the center of the body, dividing it into left and right halves
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Sagittal Planes vertical planes passig thru the body parallel to the median plane. It is helpful to give a point of reference to indicate the position of a specific plane. A plane parallel to and near the median plane may be referred to as a paramedian plane ex: a sagittal plane through the midpoint of the clavical
Frontal (Coronal) Plane vertical planes passing thru the body at right angles to the median plane, and dividing it into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions ex: frontal plane thru the heads of the mandible
Transverse Planes Planes passing thru the body at right angles to the median and frontal planes. Divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts. Radiologists refer to transverse planes as transaxial planes or simply axial planes
Inferomedial Nearer to the feet and closer to the median plane ex: anterior parts of the ribs run inferomedially
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Superolateral Nearer to the head and farther from the median plane
Ipsilateral Occuring on the same side of the body ex: right thumb and right great toe
Contralateral Occurring on the opposite side of the body ex: right hand is contralateral to the left hand
Flexion bending of a part or decreasing the angle between the body parts
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Extension straightening a part or increasing the angle between body parts. Except for the thumb, flexion and extension movements are in the sagittal plane
Abduction moving away from the median plane of the body in the frontal plane
Rotation moving a part of the body around its long axis. Medial rotation turns the anterior surface medially, and lateral rotation turns this surface laterally
Circumduction Circular movement of the limbsor parts of them, combining in sequence the movements of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
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Pronation Medial rotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm faces posteriorly
Supination lateral rotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm faces anteriorly, as in the antomical position
Dorsiflexion elevation of the dorsumof the foot at the ankle
Plantarflexion Depression of the sole of the foot at the ankle
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Eversion Turning the sole of the foot outward
Inversion Turning the sole of the foot inward
Protrusion (Protraction) to move the jaw anteriorly
Retrusion (Retraction) to move the jaw posteriorly
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Elevation Raises or moves a part superiorly
Depression lowers or moves a part inferiorly
Skin Largest organ of the body. One of the best indicators of health. Provides: Protection from environmental effects Containment: of tissues, organs, and vital substances of the body Heat Regulation thru sweat glands, blood vessels, and fat deposits Sensation by way of superficial nerves and their sensory organs Synthesis and storage of vitamin D
Epidermis keratinized stratified (layered) epithelium with a tough outer surface composed of keratin (a fibrous protein) Renewed every 25-45 days
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Dermis Formed by a dense layer of interlacing collagen and elastic fibers. These fibers provide skintone and account for he strength and toughness of the ski
Arrector Muscles erectsthe hairs on the skin causing goose bumps
Subcutaneous Tissue (Supeficial fascia) composed of loose connective tissue and fat. Between dermis and underlying deep fascia Contains deepest parts of the sweat glands, the blood and lymphatic vessels, and cutaneous nerves Provides for most of the bodys fat storage (thickness varies)
Skin Ligaments (L. retinacula cutis) consisting of numerous small fibrous bands, extnd through the subcutaneous tissue and attach the deep surface of the dermis to the underlying deep fascia
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Deep Fascia *Dense organized connective tissue layer, devoid of fat, that envelops most of the body deep to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. *Extensions from its internal surface: Invest deeper structures (investing fascia) Divide muscles into groups or compartments (intermuscular septa) Lie b/w the musculoskeletal walls and the serous membranes lining body cavities (subserous fascia) *Forms retinacula (holds tendons in place during joint movement) and bursae (closed sacs containing fluid)
Axial Skeleton Bones of the head (cranium or skull), neck (cervical vertebrae), and trunk (ribs, sternum, vertebrae, and sacrum)
Appendicular Skeleton Bones of the limbs, including those forming the pectoral (shoulder) and pelvic girdles
Bone living tissue. Highly specialized, hard form of connective tissue that makes up most of the skeleton and is the chief supporting tissue of the body. Provide: Protection for vital structures Suport for the body and its vital cavities Mechanical basis for movement Storage for salts (eg. salts) Continuous supply of new blood cells (produced by the marrow in the medullary cavity of many bones
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Cartilage Resilient, semirigid, avascular type of connective tissue that forms parts of the skeleton where more flexibility is necessary Avascular. Cells get oxygen and nutrients thru diffusion Articular Cartilage: provides smooth, low-friction gliding surfaces for free movement of the articulating bones
Periosteum Fibrous connective tissue covering that surrounds bone
Perichondrium Surrounding cartilage elements, excluding articular cartilage WIKI: The perichondrium is a layer of dense irregular connective tissue which surrounds the cartilage of developing bone.
Compact Bone v. Spongy Bone Differences between these types of bone depend on the relative amount of solid matter and the number and size of the spaces they contain
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Long Bones Tubular structures eg. humerus in the arm; phalanges in the fingers
Short Bones cuboidal and are found only in the ankle (tarsus) and wrist (carpus)
Flat Bones Usually serve protective functions eg. Those of the cranium protect the brain
Irregular Bones Have various shapes other than long, short, or flat eg. face
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Sesamoid Bones Develop in certain tendons. Protect the tendons from excessive wear and often change the angle of the tendons as they pass to their attachments eg. patella or kneecap
Condyle (Bone Markings) Round articular area eg. condyles of the femur
Crest (Bone Markings) Ridge of bone eg. iliac crest
Epicondyle (Bone Markings) Eminence superior to a condyle eg. epicondyles of the humerus
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Facet (Bone Markings) Smooth flat area, usually covered with cartilage, where a bone articulates with another bone eg. articular facets of a vertebra
Foramen (Bone Markings) Passage through a bone eg. obturator foramen
Fossa (Bone Markings) Hollow or depressed area eg. infraspinous fossa of the scapula
Line (Linea) (Bone Markings) Linear elevation eg. soleal line of the tibia
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Malleolus (Bone Markings) Rounded prominence eg. lateral malleolus of the fibula
Notch (Bone Markings) Indentation at the edge of a bone eg. greater sciatic notch in the posterior border of the hip bone
Process (Bone Markings) Projecting spine-like part eg. spinous process of a vertebra
Protuberance (Bone Markings) Projection of a bone eg. external occipital protuberance of the cranium
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Spine (Bone Markings) thorn-like process eg. spine of the scapula
Trochanter (Bone Markings) large blunt elevation eg. greater trochanter of the femur
Tubercle (Bone Markings) Small raised eminence eg. greater tubercle of the humerus
Tuberosity (Bone Markings) Large, rounded elevation eg. ischial tuberosity, calcaneal tuberosity
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Mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue) By which all bones are derived from one of two ways: Intramembranous ossification: (membranous bone formation) Form during the embryonic perid, and direct ossification of the mesenchyme begins in the fetal period Endochondral Ossification: (cartilaginous bone formation) Form from mesenchyme during the fetal period and bone subequently replacese most of the cartilage
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 Regional AnatomyBased on the organization of the body into parts: head, neck, trunk (further subdivided into thorax, abdomen, pelvis/perineum, back) and paired upper and lower limbs
 Systemic Anatomyapproach to anatomical study organized by organ systems that work together to carry out complex functions
Systems: Integumentary, skeletal, articular, muscular, nervous, circulatory (cardiovascular & lymphoid), digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, endocrine
 Integumentary System(Dermatology) Skin and its appendages (hair and nails). Sensory organ. Forms protective covering for the body.

WIKI: The integumentary system (From Latin integumentum, from integere 'to cover'; from in- + tegere 'to cover') is the organ system that protects the body from damage, comprising the skin and its appendages (including hair, scales, feathers, and nails).
 Skeletal System(Osteology; Orthopedics) Bones and cartilage. Provides support for the body and protects vital organs. Muscular system acts on the skeletal system to produce movements.

WIKI: The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage.
 Articular System(Arthology) Joints and associated ligaments. Connects the bony parts of the skeletal system and provides the sites at which movement occurs.
 Muscular System(Myology) muscles that (contract) to move or position parts of the body.

WIKI: The muscular system is the anatomical system of a species that allows it to move.
 Nervous System(Neurology) central nervous system (CNS-brain and spinal cord) & peripheral nervous system (PNS- nerves and ganglia together w/ the motor and sensory organs). Controls and coordinates the functions of the organ systems

WIKI: The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body.
 Circulatory System(Angiology) cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. Function in parallel to distribute fluids w/i th body
CARDIOVASCULAR: (Cardiology) heart and blood vessels. Propel and conduct blood through the body
LYMPHOID: Network of lymphatic vessels that withdraws excess tissue fluid (lymph) from the body's intracellular fluid compartment, filters it thru the lymph nodes and returns it back to bloodstream
WIKI: The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids, electrolytes and lymph), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc.
 Digestive System (Alimentary System)(Gastroenterology) organs and glands associated with the ingestion, mastication, deglutition (swallowing), digestion, and absorption of food and the elimination of solid wastes after the nutrients have been absorbed
 Respiratory System(Pulmonology) air passages and lungs that supply oxygen and eliminate CO

WIKI: In humans and other animals, for example, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles.
 Urinary System(Urology) kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Filter blood and subsequently produce, transport, store, and intermittently excrete liquid waste

WIKI: The urinary system (also called the excretory system) is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine.
 Reproductive System(Females: Obstetrics & Gynecology; Males: Andrology) gonads (ovaries & testes) that produce oocytes (eggs) and sperms and the other genital organs concerned with reproduction

WIKI: The reproductive system or genital system is a system of organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of reproduction.
 Endocrine System(Endocrinology) discrete ductless glands (thyroid gland) as well as cells of the intestine and blood vessel walls and specialized nerve endings that secrete hormones (distributed by the cardiovascular sys to reach receptor organs in all parts of the body). Influence metabolism and coordinate and regulate other processes.
 Clinical (Applied) AnatomyEmphasizes aspects of the structure and function of the body important in the practice of medicine, dentistry, and the allied health sciences. Encompasses both the regional and the systemic approaches to studying anatomy and stresses clinical application
 EponymsNames of structures derived from the names of people

WIKI :An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, after which a particular place, tribe, era, discovery, or other item is named or thought to be named.
 Median (Median Sagittal) Planevertical plane passing longitudinally thru the center of the body, dividing it into left and right halves
 Sagittal Planesvertical planes passig thru the body parallel to the median plane. It is helpful to give a point of reference to indicate the position of a specific plane. A plane parallel to and near the median plane may be referred to as a paramedian plane

ex: a sagittal plane through the midpoint of the clavical
 Frontal (Coronal) Planevertical planes passing thru the body at right angles to the median plane, and dividing it into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions

ex: frontal plane thru the heads of the mandible
 Transverse PlanesPlanes passing thru the body at right angles to the median and frontal planes. Divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts. Radiologists refer to transverse planes as transaxial planes or simply axial planes
 InferomedialNearer to the feet and closer to the median plane

ex: anterior parts of the ribs run inferomedially
 SuperolateralNearer to the head and farther from the median plane
 IpsilateralOccuring on the same side of the body

ex: right thumb and right great toe
 ContralateralOccurring on the opposite side of the body

ex: right hand is contralateral to the left hand
 Flexionbending of a part or decreasing the angle between the body parts
 Extensionstraightening a part or increasing the angle between body parts. Except for the thumb, flexion and extension movements are in the sagittal plane
 Abductionmoving away from the median plane of the body in the frontal plane
 Rotationmoving a part of the body around its long axis. Medial rotation turns the anterior surface medially, and lateral rotation turns this surface laterally
 CircumductionCircular movement of the limbsor parts of them, combining in sequence the movements of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
 PronationMedial rotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm faces posteriorly
 Supinationlateral rotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm faces anteriorly, as in the antomical position
 Dorsiflexionelevation of the dorsumof the foot at the ankle
 PlantarflexionDepression of the sole of the foot at the ankle
 EversionTurning the sole of the foot outward
 InversionTurning the sole of the foot inward
 Protrusion(Protraction) to move the jaw anteriorly
 Retrusion(Retraction) to move the jaw posteriorly
 ElevationRaises or moves a part superiorly
 Depressionlowers or moves a part inferiorly
 SkinLargest organ of the body. One of the best indicators of health.
Provides:
Protection from environmental effects
Containment: of tissues, organs, and vital substances of the body
Heat Regulation thru sweat glands, blood vessels, and fat deposits
Sensation by way of superficial nerves and their sensory organs
Synthesis and storage of vitamin D
 Epidermiskeratinized stratified (layered) epithelium with a tough outer surface composed of keratin (a fibrous protein)
Renewed every 25-45 days
 DermisFormed by a dense layer of interlacing collagen and elastic fibers. These fibers provide skintone and account for he strength and toughness of the ski
 Arrector Muscleserectsthe hairs on the skin causing goose bumps
 Subcutaneous Tissue(Supeficial fascia) composed of loose connective tissue and fat.
Between dermis and underlying deep fascia
Contains deepest parts of the sweat glands, the blood and lymphatic vessels, and cutaneous nerves
Provides for most of the bodys fat storage (thickness varies)
 Skin Ligaments (L. retinacula cutis)consisting of numerous small fibrous bands, extnd through the subcutaneous tissue and attach the deep surface of the dermis to the underlying deep fascia
 Deep Fascia*Dense organized connective tissue layer, devoid of fat, that envelops most of the body deep to the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
*Extensions from its internal surface:
Invest deeper structures (investing fascia)
Divide muscles into groups or compartments (intermuscular septa)
Lie b/w the musculoskeletal walls and the serous membranes lining body cavities (subserous fascia)
*Forms retinacula (holds tendons in place during joint movement) and bursae (closed sacs containing fluid)
 Axial SkeletonBones of the head (cranium or skull), neck (cervical vertebrae), and trunk (ribs, sternum, vertebrae, and sacrum)
 Appendicular SkeletonBones of the limbs, including those forming the pectoral (shoulder) and pelvic girdles
 Boneliving tissue. Highly specialized, hard form of connective tissue that makes up most of the skeleton and is the chief supporting tissue of the body. Provide:
Protection for vital structures
Suport for the body and its vital cavities
Mechanical basis for movement
Storage for salts (eg. salts)
Continuous supply of new blood cells (produced by the marrow in the medullary cavity of many bones
 CartilageResilient, semirigid, avascular type of connective tissue that forms parts of the skeleton where more flexibility is necessary
Avascular. Cells get oxygen and nutrients thru diffusion
Articular Cartilage: provides smooth, low-friction gliding surfaces for free movement of the articulating bones
 PeriosteumFibrous connective tissue covering that surrounds bone
 PerichondriumSurrounding cartilage elements, excluding articular cartilage

WIKI: The perichondrium is a layer of dense irregular connective tissue which surrounds the cartilage of developing bone.
 Compact Bone v. Spongy Bone Differences between these types of bone depend on the relative amount of solid matter and the number and size of the spaces they contain
 Long BonesTubular structures
eg. humerus in the arm; phalanges in the fingers
 Short Bonescuboidal and are found only in the ankle (tarsus) and wrist (carpus)
 Flat BonesUsually serve protective functions
eg. Those of the cranium protect the brain
 Irregular BonesHave various shapes other than long, short, or flat
eg. face
 Sesamoid BonesDevelop in certain tendons. Protect the tendons from excessive wear and often change the angle of the tendons as they pass to their attachments
eg. patella or kneecap
 Condyle (Bone Markings)Round articular area
eg. condyles of the femur
 Crest (Bone Markings)Ridge of bone
eg. iliac crest
 Epicondyle (Bone Markings)Eminence superior to a condyle
eg. epicondyles of the humerus
 Facet (Bone Markings)Smooth flat area, usually covered with cartilage, where a bone articulates with another bone
eg. articular facets of a vertebra
 Foramen (Bone Markings)Passage through a bone
eg. obturator foramen
 Fossa (Bone Markings)Hollow or depressed area
eg. infraspinous fossa of the scapula
 Line (Linea) (Bone Markings)Linear elevation
eg. soleal line of the tibia
 Malleolus (Bone Markings)Rounded prominence
eg. lateral malleolus of the fibula
 Notch (Bone Markings)Indentation at the edge of a bone
eg. greater sciatic notch in the posterior border of the hip bone
 Process (Bone Markings)Projecting spine-like part
eg. spinous process of a vertebra
 Protuberance (Bone Markings)Projection of a bone
eg. external occipital protuberance of the cranium
 Spine (Bone Markings)thorn-like process
eg. spine of the scapula
 Trochanter (Bone Markings)large blunt elevation
eg. greater trochanter of the femur
 Tubercle (Bone Markings)Small raised eminence
eg. greater tubercle of the humerus
 Tuberosity (Bone Markings)Large, rounded elevation
eg. ischial tuberosity, calcaneal tuberosity
 Mesenchyme(embryonic connective tissue) By which all bones are derived from one of two ways:
Intramembranous ossification: (membranous bone formation) Form during the embryonic perid, and direct ossification of the mesenchyme begins in the fetal period
Endochondral Ossification: (cartilaginous bone formation) Form from mesenchyme during the fetal period and bone subequently replacese most of the cartilage
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