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Class:ZOOLOGY 350 - Parasitology
Subject:ZOOLOGY
University:University of Wisconsin - Madison
Term:Spring 2010
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Aberrant Parasite Characteristic of the host, but found in an unusual location within the host.
Accidental/Incidental Parasite One that is found in other than its normal host; i.e., dog heartworm in cats
Ectoparasite Lives on the outer surface of its host
Endoparasite Lives inside its host
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Facultative Parasite -Establishes a relationship with a host if the opportunity presents itself. -"Will be a parasite if it has to be"
Obligatory Parasite One that is physiologically and metabolically dependent on the host (endoparasites)
Permanent Parasite -Lives its entire adult life within or on a host -Spends at least all of a life cycle stage in its host
Temporary/Intermittent Parasite Contacts its host only to feed and then leaves
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Definitive Host One in which a parasite reaches sexual maturity, or the most important host if no sexual reproduction occurs.
Intermediate Host -One in which some development or asexual reproduction occurs, but sexual maturity does not occur. -Host in which a parasite undergoes some type of development in which it can go on to infect the next.
Paratenic Host -Host which the parasite enters, does not undergo any development or reproduction, but remains infective to the definitive host. -Serves purpose of intermediate host but isn't one
Reservoir Host A "living source" of the parasite; not host of primary concern.
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Vector -Intermediate host that actively transmits a disease organism (usually an Arthropod) -An insect or any living carrier that transmits an infectious agent. -Mechanical vectors are not intermediate hosts
Coelozoic -Lives in cavities of the host; i.e., paritoneal cavity, lumen of the gut, blood vessels, etc. -Tend to not be very pathogenic
Cytozoic -Intracellular parasites; live within host cells -Tend to be more pathognic
Histozoic -Lives in the tissues of the host, but not within the cells. -Usually very pathogenic
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Direct Life Cycle One host cycle (monoxenous parasite), commonly called "hand-to-mouth" cycles
Indirect Life Cycle One requiring two or more hosts (heteroxenous parasite)
Cyclodevelopmental Transmission Biological transmission- the parasite undergoes cyclical changes within the vector but does not multiply; i.e., there is only developmental changes of the parasite without multiplication.
Cyclopropagative Transmission Biological Transmission- The parasite undergoes cyclical changes and multiplies within the vector; i.e., there are both developmental changes and multiplication of the parasite
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Propagative Transmission Biological Transmission- The parasite multiplies within the vector without any cyclical changes; i.e., the parasite increases in number within the vector but does not undergo any developmental changes.
Mechanical Transmission Mechanical Transmission- This is similar to a "flying syringe" where transmission from one host to another is accomplished because the parasite contaminates the mouth-parts of an arthropod and is physically carries to another host.
Endemic A disease pathogen is present in an area and is expected to be there.
Epidemic The presence of a disease is at levels higher than what normally is expected.
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Epidemiology Literally means "as it falls upon the people." A good working definition is the ecology of disease; i.e., all aspects of the pathogen, host(s), environment, social conditions, etc. that contribute to or influence the maintenance of a disease.
Incidence Number of new cases of infection (disease) in a given time period divided by the number of uninfected and susceptible hosts at the beginning of the time period
Intensity -Number of parasites in a given host. -Usually best indicator of disease (greater intensity => greater pathology)
Mean Intensity The total number of parasites recovered, divided by the number of infected hosts.
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Density Number of parasites per unit area, weight, or volume of tissue (e.g., number of parasite eggs per gram of feces)
Overdispersion -A general rule in parasite infections where relatively few hosts harbor the majority of all parasites in a population. -Population of parasites tend to be overdispersed.
Prevalence Number of infected hosts divided by the number of hosts examined at a point in time.
Underdispersion In contrast to an overdispersion, this is a population of hosts that all have a relatively similar number of parasites.
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Phoresy A small organism carried by a larger organism
Commensalism One organism benefits but the other is unaffected.
Mutualism Both members are dependent on the other for survival.
Parasitism A symbiotic relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the host.
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Phylum Platyhelmithes Flat worms, tape worms, flukes
Phylum Nematoda Round worms; the most diverse array of organisms
Phylum Acanthocephala Thorny-headed worms
Phylum Arthropoda -An invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages. -Many very important as transmitters and intermediates
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Protozoa Microorganisms classified as unicellular eukaryotes. They play a key role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem
Pathology 1. Mechanical damage 2. Toxins 3. Eating/absorbing nutrients 4. Immune damage
Pandemic Global-level epidemic
Hypoendemic Endemic occurring at a level always lower than "normal"
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Hyperendemic Endemic occurring at a level always higher than "normal"
Mesoendemic Endemic at normal levels
Holoendemic Occurs in an area where virtually everyone in the population is infected
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 Aberrant ParasiteCharacteristic of the host, but found in an unusual location within the host.
 Accidental/Incidental ParasiteOne that is found in other than its normal host; i.e., dog heartworm in cats
 EctoparasiteLives on the outer surface of its host
 EndoparasiteLives inside its host
 Facultative Parasite-Establishes a relationship with a host if the opportunity presents itself.
-"Will be a parasite if it has to be"
 Obligatory ParasiteOne that is physiologically and metabolically dependent on the host (endoparasites)
 Permanent Parasite-Lives its entire adult life within or on a host
-Spends at least all of a life cycle stage in its host
 Temporary/Intermittent ParasiteContacts its host only to feed and then leaves
 Definitive HostOne in which a parasite reaches sexual maturity, or the most important host if no sexual reproduction occurs.
 Intermediate Host-One in which some development or asexual reproduction occurs, but sexual maturity does not occur.
-Host in which a parasite undergoes some type of development in which it can go on to infect the next.
 Paratenic Host-Host which the parasite enters, does not undergo any development or reproduction, but remains infective to the definitive host.
-Serves purpose of intermediate host but isn't one
 Reservoir HostA "living source" of the parasite; not host of primary concern.
 Vector-Intermediate host that actively transmits a disease organism (usually an Arthropod)
-An insect or any living carrier that transmits an infectious agent.
-Mechanical vectors are not intermediate hosts
 Coelozoic-Lives in cavities of the host; i.e., paritoneal cavity, lumen of the gut, blood vessels, etc.
-Tend to not be very pathogenic
 Cytozoic-Intracellular parasites; live within host cells
-Tend to be more pathognic
 Histozoic-Lives in the tissues of the host, but not within the cells.
-Usually very pathogenic
 Direct Life CycleOne host cycle (monoxenous parasite), commonly called "hand-to-mouth" cycles
 Indirect Life CycleOne requiring two or more hosts (heteroxenous parasite)
 Cyclodevelopmental TransmissionBiological transmission- the parasite undergoes cyclical changes within the vector but does not multiply; i.e., there is only developmental changes of the parasite without multiplication.
 Cyclopropagative TransmissionBiological Transmission- The parasite undergoes cyclical changes and multiplies within the vector; i.e., there are both developmental changes and multiplication of the parasite
 Propagative TransmissionBiological Transmission- The parasite multiplies within the vector without any cyclical changes; i.e., the parasite increases in number within the vector but does not undergo any developmental changes.
 Mechanical TransmissionMechanical Transmission- This is similar to a "flying syringe" where transmission from one host to another is accomplished because the parasite contaminates the mouth-parts of an arthropod and is physically carries to another host.
 EndemicA disease pathogen is present in an area and is expected to be there.
 EpidemicThe presence of a disease is at levels higher than what normally is expected.
 EpidemiologyLiterally means "as it falls upon the people." A good working definition is the ecology of disease; i.e., all aspects of the pathogen, host(s), environment, social conditions, etc. that contribute to or influence the maintenance of a disease.
 IncidenceNumber of new cases of infection (disease) in a given time period divided by the number of uninfected and susceptible hosts at the beginning of the time period
 Intensity-Number of parasites in a given host.
-Usually best indicator of disease (greater intensity => greater pathology)
 Mean IntensityThe total number of parasites recovered, divided by the number of infected hosts.
 DensityNumber of parasites per unit area, weight, or volume of tissue (e.g., number of parasite eggs per gram of feces)
 Overdispersion-A general rule in parasite infections where relatively few hosts harbor the majority of all parasites in a population.
-Population of parasites tend to be overdispersed.
 PrevalenceNumber of infected hosts divided by the number of hosts examined at a point in time.
 UnderdispersionIn contrast to an overdispersion, this is a population of hosts that all have a relatively similar number of parasites.
 PhoresyA small organism carried by a larger organism
 CommensalismOne organism benefits but the other is unaffected.
 MutualismBoth members are dependent on the other for survival.
 ParasitismA symbiotic relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the host.
 Phylum PlatyhelmithesFlat worms, tape worms, flukes
 Phylum NematodaRound worms; the most diverse array of organisms
 Phylum AcanthocephalaThorny-headed worms
 Phylum Arthropoda-An invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages.
-Many very important as transmitters and intermediates
 ProtozoaMicroorganisms classified as unicellular eukaryotes. They play a key role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem
 Pathology1. Mechanical damage
2. Toxins
3. Eating/absorbing nutrients
4. Immune damage
 PandemicGlobal-level epidemic
 HypoendemicEndemic occurring at a level always lower than "normal"
 HyperendemicEndemic occurring at a level always higher than "normal"
 MesoendemicEndemic at normal levels
 HoloendemicOccurs in an area where virtually everyone in the population is infected
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